Summary Information About Kars

Kars Province is a province of Turkey, located in the northeastern part of the country. It shares part of its closed border with Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Kars. The provinces of Ardahan and Iğdır were until the 1990s parts of Kars Province.

Kars was in the ancient region known as Chorzene, in classical historiography (Strabo), part of Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), in Ayrarat province.


The city’s name may be derived from the Armenian word, “Kaṛuts Fortress”. Another hypothesis has it that the name derives from the Georgian word (kari), meaning “the gate” as was the case for other border region strongholds.


Kars has a humid continental climate. It experiences significant seasonal and diurnal temperature variation, due to its location away from large bodies of water, its high elevation and location, where the high plateau of Eastern Anatolia converges with the Lesser Caucasus mountain range.


Summers are generally brief and quite warm with cool nights. The average high temperature in August is 27 °C (81 °F).


Winters are very cold. The average low January temperature is −15 °C (5 °F), and temperatures can plummet to −30 °C (−22 °F) during the winter months. Kars experiences frequent and sometimes heavy snowfall, with four months of snow cover on averag




9442.00 km 2










History of Kars

In ancient times, Kars was part of the province of Ararat in the Kingdom of Armenia. The first known people were the followers of Vanand, for whom Kars was their main settlement and fortress. In 928, Kars became the capital of Bagratid Armenia. In 968, the capital of Armenia was moved to Ani, but Kars remained the capital of the feudal principality of Vanand.


The Seljuks quickly relinquished direct control over Kars and it became a small emirate whose territory corresponded closely to that of Vanand. Later, in 1207, Georgian and Armenian forces  captured Kars after a long siege. It was a part of Zakarid Armenia, principality under rule of Zakarians–Mkhargrdzeli, vassals of Bagrationi dynasty of Georgia. It was conquered in 1242 by the Mongols; was regained by Georgian Kingdom during the reign of George V the Brilliant (1314–1346) and remained as part of the Kingdom before its disintegration, which then passed into the hands of Georgian Atabegs belonging to the House of Jaqeli. During the rule of the Persian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, the fortress of Kars, located in what was then the eastern part of the city, fell into disrepair. However, as Kars was within a border region its defensive structures were often renewed, and they continued to advance to such a degree, that in the 19th century Kars was well known around the world as a castle.


As a result of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 to 1878, the province of Kars was incorporated into the Russian Empire as part of the militarily administered Kars Oblast and remained so until 1918. The period from 1878 to 1918 was marked in the province of Kars by the settlement by the Russian authorities of a very heterogeneous mix of Christian populations, including Armenians, Caucasus Greeks, Russians, Georgians, and even smaller numbers from other Christian communities hitherto with little or no historical links to the region, such as ethnic Germans, Poles, Estonians, Lithuanians, and Russian sectarian communities such as Molokans and Doukhobors.


In September 1935 the third Inspectorate General (Umumi Müfettişlik, UM) was created. The Inspectorates Generals regions ruled with wide-ranging authority over the population in order to Turkefy its population. The third UM span over the provinces of Erzurum, Artvin, Rize, Trabzon, Kars Gümüşhane, Erzincan and Ağrı. It was governed by a Inspector General seated in the city of Erzurum. The Inspectorate General was dissolved in 1952 during the Government of the Democrat Party

Districts of Kars

Point of Interests in Kars

Kars has a wealth of wildlife that is being documented by the Kars-Iğdır Biodiversity Project run by the KuzeyDoğa Society. The project has recorded 356 of Turkey’s 486 bird species in the region, including Ardahan and Iğdır provinces that were formerly part of Kars. At least 233 of these occur at Lake Kuyucuk,that is the most important wetland in the region. Sarıkamış Forests in the south harbor Indian wolves, Syrian brown bear, Caucasian lynx and other animals, and Aras (Araxes) River wetlands comprise a key stop-over site for many migrating birds. Aras River Bird Research and Education Center at Yukarı Cıyrıklı village has recorded 303 bird species at this single location alone.


Kars contains numerous monuments, the most notable being the ruined Armenian city of Ani and the 9th century Church of the Apostles.


The economy of Kars Province is dominated by agriculture, livestock breeding and forestry. 85% of the active population in Kars Province are farmers or herders. 60% of the gross domestic income is received from those sectors. Industry, tourism and commerce is developing.


Livestock breeding in the region is more important than agriculture. Grassland, meadows and the rich vegetation led to the development of livestock breeding. The grassland and meadows, which make out 70% of the area of Kars Province, are capable of providing at least ten times of the current livestock potential’s breeding. Kars is the biggest cattle breeding province in Turkey, and is the center of livestock trade. Efforts are being made to increase goose breeding, which is very special to Kars region. Aside its meat taking a special place in the Kars cuisine, goose liver and down feather started already to be exported to Europe.


Kars Province is not abundant with woods although the region is favorable for forests. Only 4% of the province area is covered with woods. Scots Pine, spruce and alder are the tree species most found in the woods of Kars. Around 15,000 m3 (530,000 cu ft) timber is produced by logging in forestry

Main industrial plants in Kars are of meat processing, livestock feed processing, gristmill, yarn, tannery, footwear, cement and brick factories


Let's see the cuisine of Kars


  • Kars honey,
  • Kars Kasseri,
  • Kars Gruyère cheese, which tastes like Swiss Emmental cheese,
  • Kars style roasted goose
  • PITI
  • KETE

For more information about Kars



For more information, you may visit the official government website of KARS


See the other cities of Turkey


Muğla Province is a province of Turkey, at the country’s south-western corner, on the Aegean Sea. Its seat is Muğla,

Learn More »


Kahramanmaraş Province is a province of Turkey. Its provincial capital is the city of Kahramanmara. Kahramanmaraş is traversed by the

Learn More »


Tokat Province is a province in northern Turkey. Its adjacent provinces are Amasya to the northwest, Yozgat to the southwest,

Learn More »


Giresun Province is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Its adjacent provinces are Trabzon to the east,

Learn More »
No more posts to show
Sign up now
and get a free copy
of our Investment Guide.
Sign up now and get a free copy of our Investment Guide.

©2022, ZEEDEED­­™ is a protected trademark. All rights reserved.