Summary Information About İstanbul



Augusta, Antonina, Nova Roma, Byzantion, Byzantium, Constantinople and finally called Istanbul..

The capital of empires, the city that dominated continents, the cradle of civilization, the meeting point of cultures and civilizations. These are some of Istanbul descriptions. Yet neither words nor any description is sufficient to truly describe Istanbul.


Istanbul formerly known as Constantinople. The old walled city of Istanbul stands on a triangular peninsula between Europe and Asia. Sometimes as a bridge, sometimes as a barrier, Istanbul for more than 2,500 years has stood between conflicting surges of religion, culture, and imperial power. For most of those years it was one of the most coveted cities in the world.. The city straddles the Bosporus strait, lying in both Europe and Asia, and has a population of over 15 million residents, comprising 19% of the population of Turkey. Istanbul is the most populous European city, and the world’s 13th-largest city.


The old city contains about 9 square miles (23 square km), but the present municipal boundaries stretch a great deal beyond. The original peninsular city has seven hills, requisite for Constantine’s “New Rome.” Six are crests of a long ridge above the Golden Horn; the other is a solitary eminence in the southwest corner. Around their slopes are ranged many of the mosques and other historic landmarks that were collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985.


By long tradition, the waters washing the peninsula are called “the three seas”: they are the Golden Horn, the Bosporus, and the Sea of Marmara. The Golden Horn is a deep drowned valley about 4.5 miles (7 km) long. Early inhabitants saw it as being shaped like a deer horn, but modern Turks call it the Haliç (“Canal”). The Bosporus (İstanbul Boğazı) is the channel connecting the Black Sea (Karadeniz) to the Mediterranean (Akdeniz) by way of the Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi) and the straits of the Dardanelles. The narrow Golden Horn separates old Istanbul (Stamboul) to the south from the “new” city of Beyoğlu to the north; the broader Bosporus divides European Istanbul from the city’s districts on the Asian shore—Üsküdar (ancient Chrysopolis) and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon).





5220.00 km 2










History of İstanbul

The history of Istanbul stretches back 8500 years with the Neolithic age settlement, which came to light with the excavations of Yenikapı Theodosius Harbor , and a new era was opened about the cultural, artistic, geological change and urban archeology that the city went through in this process.


It was the capital of three universal empires such as Rome, Byzantium and Ottoman Empire . In the 4th century AD, the Roman Empire expanded greatly; Due to its strategic location, Istanbul was chosen by the Emperor Constantine the Great as the new capital instead of Rome . The city was reorganized in more than 6 years , the walls were expanded, temples, official buildings, palaces, baths and hippodrome were built. With great ceremonies held in 330, the city was officially declared as the capital of the Roman Empire . The city, which was known as the Second Rome and New Rome at the beginning of the modern age , was later called “Byzantion” and in the late periods. It was called Constantinople. Among the people, the name of the city has been referred to as “Police” throughout history.

It is understood that the efforts of the emperors after the Great Constantine to beautify the city continued. The first churches in the city were also built after Constantine. Due to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, Istanbul has been the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine) for many years. The city, which was rebuilt during the Byzantine period , was expanded again with walls. Today’s 6492 m. long magnificent city walls, Emperor II. It was built by Theodosius . In the 6th century, the city, whose population exceeded half a million, experienced another golden age under the rule of Emperor Justinian. Hagia Sophia, which has survived to the present day, is a work of this period.


The Latin domination, which was a dark period between 726-842 , started with the invasion of the city in 1204 by the 4th Crusade, and the city was plundered for years, up to all churches, monasteries and monuments. The city, whose administration was again in the hands of the Byzantines in 1261, could not regain its former wealth. Istanbul fell into the hands of the Turks in 1453, after a 53-day siege .


The large cannons of Mehmet the Conqueror , used for the first time in the history of the war, are an important reason for overcoming the walls of Istanbul. The capital of the Ottoman Empire was moved here, the population of the city was increased with the immigrants brought from various parts of the country, and the reconstruction works of the empty and dilapidated city were started. Freedom of religion and social rights were granted to the old people of the city and they were allowed to continue their lives. A century after the conquest , Turkish Art left its mark on the city, and domes and minarets dominated the silhouette of the city. Since the 19th century, the Ottoman Sultans became the Caliphs, and Istanbul became the center of the entire Islamic world.


Under the rule of the sultans , the city was completely reconstructed and took on a fascinating atmosphere . The Sultan’s Palace, located in the old acropolis, has a unique view of the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn. After the frequent contacts with the Western world from the 19th century , mosques and palaces began to be built on the shores of the Bosphorus in the European architectural style. Many palaces built in a short time are also symbols of the last period of the Ottoman Empire. At the beginning of the 20th century, Istanbul witnessed the end of the Ottoman Empire.


While the Ottoman Empire crumbled and internal and external enemies struggled for their share; With the support of the Turkish Nation, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, together with his comrades, embarked on a struggle for the liberation of the homeland . Following the War of Independence, which was won by the will of the nation ; The Republic of Turkey was established in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk . In this process, the relocation of the capital to Ankara did not change the importance of Istanbul. This unique city continues to be one of the most important culture-tourism-art-finance and trade capitals in the world with its fascinating appearance .

Districts of İstanbul








































Point of Interests in İstanbul

  • Istanbul is the only pan-continental city in the world situated on two continents, Europe and Asia
    • more than 8,500 years of history,
  • capital of 3 glorious empires, the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Empires
  • Under the Ottoman Empire, Istanbul was well-known for having more than 1,400 public toilets
  • While not the capital, Istanbul is Turkey’s largest city with more than 13 million people
  • 99 per cent of Istanbul’s population is Muslim
  • 5th most visited city in the world,
  • Tulips, the icon of Holland, originated in Istanbul and were sent from Istanbul to the Netherlands
  • The Grand Bazaar is the biggest old covered bazaar in the world, with over 3,000 shops of all kinds
  • Istanbul was once recognised as the most jam-packed city on earth, which was in 1502.
  • Istanbul has the third oldest subway in the world, built in 1875. It’s 573 metres long and located in the Beyoglu district. The first subway built was in London in 1863 and the second in New York in 1868
  • Istanbul is home to the most mosques in Turkey. It has around 3,113 mosques, including the historical Sultanahmet Mosque and the Süleymaniye Mosque.
  • Sultanahmet or the Old City is where most of the well-known historic sights of Istanbul are situated
  • The Galata Tower, built in 1348 to house prisoners of war, now offers a 360-degree observing platform of the city.
  • Istanbul was the European Cultural Capital City in 2010, but has never hosted the Olympics.
    • more than 75 museums,
    • more than 100 lively shopping malls, and 4 historic bazaars,
    • 5 imperial palaces, and many summer palaces, pavilions and mansions,
    • huge transportation network of metro, subway, tram, buses, ferries, sea-buses, etc,
    • 4 seasons throughout the year.

Let's see the cuisine of İstanbul

  • Sultanahmet köftesi
  • Beyinli beykoz kebabi
  • Islak hamburger
  • Sariyer boregi
  • Bakla fava
  • Süzme saray asuresi
  • Istanbul pilavi
  • Lakerda
  • boza

For more information about İstanbul



For more information, you may visit the official government website of ISTANBUL


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