Summary Information About Erzurum

Erzurum Province is a province of Turkey in the Eastern Anatolia Region of the country. The capital of the province is the city of Erzurum. It is bordered by the provinces of Kars and Ağrı to the east, Muş and Bingöl to the south, Erzincan and Bayburt to the west, Rize and Artvin to the north and Ardahan to the northeast. Okay Memiş was appointed as the governor of the province by a presidential decree on 27 October 2018.


The surface area of the province of Erzurum is the fourth biggest in Turkey. The majority of the province is elevated. Most plateaus are about 2,000 m (6,600 ft) above sea level, and the mountainous regions beyond the plateaus are 3,000 m (9,800 ft) and higher. Depression plains are located between the mountains and plateaus. The southern mountain ranges include the Palandöken Mountains (highest peak Büyük Ejder 3,176 m or 10,420 ft high) and the Şahveled Mountains (highest peak Çakmak Mountain 3,063 m or 10,049 ft high). The northern mountain ranges are the second row elevations of the North Anatolian Mountains, i.e. Mescit Mountains (highest peak 3,239 m or 10,627 ft high), Kargapazarı Mountains (highest peak 3,169 m or 10,397 ft high) and Allahuekber Mountains. The two depression plains between these mountainous areas are Erzurum Plains and Hasankale Plains.


Erzurum city’s population consists mostly of ethnic Turks, with a Kurdish minority based on the south side.


The city uses the double-headed Anatolian Seljuk Eagle as its coat-of-arms, a motif that was a common symbol throughout Anatolia and the Balkans in the medieval period.


Erzurum city has diverse winter sports facilities and hosted the 2011 Winter Universiade.





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History of Erzurum

Known as Karanitis Karin or Garin, most of the province was incorporated into the Roman Empire in the 4th century (after the first split of Kingdom of Armenia in 387 between Romans and Iran), and a small mountain city called Karin or Carana was fortified. It became an important border fortress. From the mid 3rd century AD and afterwards, the territory was dominated by and incorporated into the Sasanian Empire, although it occasionally briefly fell under the rule of the neighboring Byzantine Empire as well. From the mid 7th century AD, the Arabs frequently clashed with the Byzantine Empire, including over the region Between the seventh and eight centuries Arabs and Byzantines alternately held the region in their power, local Armenian rulers played a significant role in these events.

The city (present day Erzurum) was alternatively held by the Arabs and Byzantines during the 7-10th centuries it was also part of the Georgian kingdom of Tao-Klarjeti in the 10th century. Threatened and later devastated and looted by the Seljuk Turks in 1049, the old city of Erzen was conquered, but Theodosiopolis survived the invasion until it was captured some time later. From the year 1101 onward it is documented that the ruling dynasty of the Saltukids held the town and much of the surrounding area in their power.


Erzen-Erzurum fell to the Mongol siege in 1242, and the city was looted and devastated. After the fall of the Seljuk Sultanate of Anatolia (Rum) in the early 14th century, it became an administrative province of the Ilkhanates, and after their fall, became part of the Çoban beylik, Black Sheep Turkmen, Mongols led by Timur Lenk, the White Sheep Turkmen and the rising Iranian Safavids captured the town in 1502 from the Aq Qoyunlu.


n 1514, the region was conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Selim I following the Battle of Chaldiran. The province was the site of the major fighting during Caucasus Campaign of World War I between Russian and Ottoman forces including the key confrontation of the campaign, Battle of Erzurum which resulted in capture of Erzurum by Russian army under the command of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich on 16 February 1916. It was returned to the Ottomans with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918. Erzurum was also a main Turkish base during the Turkish War of Independence and the Erzurum congress of Turkish nationalists was held here in 1919. It was declared a province of Turkey in 1924.


In September 1935 the third Inspectorate General (Umumi Müfettişlik, UM) was created. The third UM span over the provinces of Erzurum, Artvin, Rize, Trabzon, Kars Gümüşhane, Erzincan and Ağrı. Its capital was to be in the city of Erzurum and it was governed by a Inspector General. The Inspectorate General was dissolved in 1952 during the Government of the Democrat Party.

Districts of Erzurum

  • Aziziye
  • Aşkale
  • Çat
  • Hınıs
  • Horasan
  • Ilıca
  • İspir
  • Karaçoban
  • Karayazı
  • Köprüköy
  • Narman
  • Oltu
  • Olur
  • Palandöken
  • Pasinler
  • Pazaryolu
  • Şenkaya
  • Tekman
  • Tortum
  • Uzundere
  • Yakutiye

Point of Interests in Erzurum

Historically, Erzurum produced wheat and linseed; as of 1920, annual production of linseed grossed between 1,000 and 1,500 tons. Honey was also produced for local use.


Approximately 18.5% of the total surface area is arable land, of which about 75% has permanent crops. A large portion of the agricultural produce comprises cereals. Forested areas occupy 8.8% of the total surface area, with forestry a local industry. Industries largely consist of manufacturing of forestry, agriculture, husbandry, chemistry, textile and mining products. There are 81 active industrial plants in the province, most of them located at the central district of Erzurum, and are small and medium enterprises. Due to their relatively small sizes, these industries mainly serve local markets causing lower capacity usage, low productivity and unemployment. About 40 plants are currently out of use, mostly due to high operating costs.


The largest contributor to the provincial economy, in recent years, has been Atatürk University, which is also one of the largest universities in Turkey, having more than forty thousand students. Tourist activities, which include skiing, rafting, and mountaineering, also provide a substantial proportion of the province’s income. Skiing is centered on Palandöken Mountain.


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For more information, you may visit the official government website of ERZURUM



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